The presentation will commence with reasons why breakwaters and protective seawalls are necessary. In particular the impact of typhoons on Hong Kong seawalls, resulting in damage, wave overtopping and flooding will be shown.
The joint probabilities of astronomic tide, storm surge and storm waves causing the overtopping will be explained.
A history of breakwater and sloping seawall design development, instigated by major failures is followed by a brief comparison of types of seawall structures.
Finally, breakwater failures around the coast of Java will be reviewed.
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